Friday, October 31, 2008

The successor...

to Cardinal Gasparri as both Cardinal Secretary of State and Camerlengo was of course Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli. The link to this photo was sent in by a reader (thanks Gregor!), who also pointed out that a) the photo was colored after being developed and b) the map in the background looks a bit like it shows the most western part of Germany and might therefore have been taken in the nunciature in Berlin.

Pietro Cardinal Gasparri (1852-1934)

He was Cardinal Secretary of State from 1914 to 1930. Mostly of "Lateran Pacts" fame, he also played a major role in making the 1917 Code of Canon Law happen. He was the Papal legate to the 14th centennial celebration of the Abbey of Monte Cassino in 1929, 15 years before this grand and significant place was gutted. From 1916 to 1934 Gasparri was Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. This is a very beautiful painting that looked even better when I saw it during an exhibition in Rome last year.

Thursday, October 30, 2008

Color-Photos from the Vatican

I am kind of in a hurry right now and since most of these pictures already were published on the old "far sight", I'll just post them here for your pleasure without any further comment.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Reader's Photos

Here are two photos sent in by readers who are just the thing for "color-week":

Cardinals kneeling at the high altar of St. Peter's basilica [photo sent in by Charles].

Cardinal Krol with his nephews while trying on his cardinalation robes [photo sent in by Ed].

Thanks guys!

The List

Here is the list of the cardinals you can see in the group-shot.

From left to right:

1.) Chiarlo
2.) Cento
3.) Fietta
4.) Giobbe
5.) Urbani
6.) Montini
7.) Ciriaci
8.) Agagianian
9.) Copello
10.) Tappouni
11.) Cicognani, G.
12.) Mimmi (Borgangini-Duca died in 1954)
13.) Aloisi Masella
14.) Pizzardo
15.) Micara
16.) Tisserant
Blessed John XXIII
17.) Canali
18.) Ottaviani
19.) di Jorio
20.) Julien
21.) Morano
22.) Heard
23.) Bea (never would have figured that one out)
24.) Bacci
25.) Traglia
26.) Muench
27.) Testa
28.) Marella
29.) Tardini
30.) Confalonieri
31.) Cicognani, A.

Thanks to Fr. Selvester and a whole bunch of anonymous readers for contributing!

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Andreas Rohracher (1892 - 1976)

In this second installation of the "color-week", the prelate who was archbishop of Salzburg/Austria from 1943 to 1969. The archbishops of Salzburg have or had some interesting privileges:

Already in 1027 the archbishop Thietmar II. (or Dietmar) was allowed to make decisions that would have been reserved for the pope in the diocese of Salzburg in extremely urgent matters. Connected with that was the right to use a horse covered in red which later developed into the privilege of assuming the title "legatus natus". Archbishop Eberhard I. became "legatus a latere" in 1162. His successor Konrad III. became "legatus apostolicae sedis in Noricum". From that year on the archbishops of Salzburg used to wear the "purple of the legate". Until today all the archbishops receive with the pallium the title "legatus natus". It is said that the archbishops of Salzburg never really cared about becoming cardinals because they already were allowed to wear the purple (which, of course, developed into the cardinalatial red later on).

Also until today the archbishops of Salzburg have the title "Primas Germaniae", although officially they never received it. The whole story started with a quarrel between the archbishops of Magdeburg and Salzburg about who gets presidency on the bench of the clerical princes during the "Reichstage". When Magdeburg was secularized in 1648 and the last administrator died in 1680, Salzburg made use of position and title, an honor which was affirmed by the Rota Romana in 1691.

Another privilege was the title of "prince-archbishop" until 1951 (when archbishop Rohracher officially renounced it) although after the Secularization in 1803 the archbishops didn't hold any worldly power anymore.

Monday, October 27, 2008


This week, there will be color photos exclusively.

Let's start with three shots from Josef Stangl, bishop of Würzburg/Germany from 1957 to 1979.

Saturday, October 25, 2008


If anyone is able to name all these cardinals, he or she will receive the title of "Cardinal-Recognizer Supreme". I find the one to the right of Testa and the one to the left of Heard especially hard.

Friday, October 24, 2008

William Cardinal O'Connell

He was born in 1859 and died in 1944.
Ordained a priest in 1884.
Rector of the North American College in Rome in 1895.
Bishop of Portland from 1901 to 1906
Archbishop of Boston from 1907 to 1944.
Elevated to the cardinalate in 1911 with the title of S. Clemente.

O'Connell managed to be late to two papal conclaves in a row, in 1914 and 1922, due to having to cross the Atlantic Ocean in the slower transportation of the day. He made a protest to Pope Pius XI, who in response lengthened the time between the death of the Pope and the start of the conclave. O'Connell was able to participate in the subsequent 1939 conclave.

Until today I have of numerous scandals surrounding this prelate, the one involving his married nephew (who sadly also was a priest) probably being the best known. How many of these 'scandals' really happened I cannot say, because when it comes to unveiling the 'evil' O'Connell all the biographical material I could lay my hands on so far offers nothing but "It seems that...", "there are suspicions...", "allegedly..." and so on.

'Scholars' seem to agree however that O'Connell reigned the archdiocese with a firm hand and had such a huge influence in the state that politicians - referring to him as "number one" - often sought his approval before taking action on particular issues.

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Josef Cardinal Wendel

Another archbishop of Munich:

Josef Wendel was born in 1901. He was ordained a priest in Rome in 1927. After being bishop of Speyer from 1943 to 1952, he became archbishop of Munich in 1952. In 1953 he was made a cardinal with the title of Santa Maria Nuova. He organized the International Eucharistic Congress in Munich in 1960 (which, as I just read, set important signs for the liturgical reform...).

Joseph Kardinal Wendel died an unexpected and sudden death on new-years-evening 1960, after giving the new-year homily.

Installation as archbishop of Munich. Next to Wendel we see Aloysius Muench, the papal nunzio to Germany.

The consistory of 1953. Cardinal Wendel is right in front.

Official portrait

With Pope Pius XII

With Pope John XXIII

In the winter cappa

With Cardinal Feltin, archbishop of Paris

Giving his blessing

Sunday, October 19, 2008

Manuel Gonçalves Cardinal Cerejeira

He was born in 1888 and died in 1977. He was the Patriarch of Lisbon from 1929 to 1971. He was made a cardinal also in 1929, which makes his cardinalate of 48 years the longest since Henry Benedict Stewart (1747 to 1805: No-one is ever gonna beat that).

Some offcial occasion. To the left of Cardinal Cerejeira you see (if I am not mistaken and please tell me if I am) the French Cardinal Baudrillart.

With other Portugese prelates that I cannot identify.

Update: A reader just sent in this information: "Since Cerejeira was ordained a bishop until 1928 (in the photo he is holding a bishop's birretta) the the prelate next to his is a cardinal and it must be his predecessor Cardinal Bello ( it looks like him ). Cerejeira became the patriarch and cardinal the next year."


Cardinal Cerejeira is second from left. The other Cardinals are (lefto to right) Pla y Deniel, Tedeschini (?) and Gerlier.

Walking under a canpoy

I'd start thinking about some serious changes if my canons had a cappa and I didn't.

With Pope Paul VI

With a whole bunch of utterly cute kids and some proud moms

Saturday, October 18, 2008

Johannes Evangelista Cardinal Haller

Born in 1825 as the son of a peasant in South Tyrol. He became a doctor of theology and was ordained a priest in 1848. In 1890 he was made archbishop of Salzburg. He became cardinal priest with the title of S. Bartolomaei in Insula in 1895. He died in 1900.

I am kind of proud of these pictures because it is incredibly hard to find decent photographs of cardinals from that era.

Friday, October 17, 2008

Los Mártires

70 years ago the Spanish civil war had already raged for two years and by that time most of the priests, monks, nuns and Catholic lay people that gave their life for Christ and his Church between 1936 and 1939 had already been slaughtered by the red mob.

As a follow up to the "Los Curas"-entry, here is an aspect of Catholic Spain that is at the same time terrifying and edifying. To think that over 10.000 men and women were killed solely for being Catholic, sometimes after unspeakable suffering, by a rabid communist mob that did shy away neither from age (victims were between 16 and 80+) nor gender ("You're a woman? Who cares! You're catholic, so you have to die!") nor dignity (13 bishops were among the victims and the cathedral chapter of Toledo was almost entirely wiped out) nor character ("You're popular with the people and never did anybody the slightest harm? Who cares! You're a priest, so you have to die!") always brings tears to my eyes. But to read how these people met their end, how they sometimes didn't even seem to pay attention to the fact that they were being torn to pieces, because in an opening between the clouds gathered above their heads they could already see the palm branch being handed down to them, this gives me hope and fills me with even more love and gratefulness for the ones who gave their blood to further fill the vast treasure from which weak people like myself can draw strength.

Here is just a small selection of pictures, showing some of the martyrs. Take a look at these pictures and tell me how degenerate you have to be to kill men like these simply because they are priests.

Juan Aguado García-Alcañíz: Born March 18th 1901, ordained a priest June 14th 1924, parish priest of Villamuelas. Arrested and beaten to within an inch of his life on August 8th 1936. Transported to Madrid, where he was shot the following day.

Juan Bautista De La Asunción Borrás: Born on January 18th 1881, ordained a priest on June 5th 1909, chaplain of the convent of the Immaculate Conception in Toledo, where he took shelter when the civil war began. On August 6th 1936 everybody at the convent was arrested. The nuns were separated from the chaplain and his brother, who also was seeking shelter in the convent. Both men were rifled immediately.

Prudencio Leblic Acevedo: Born on April 28th 1876, ordained a priest in 1898, archpriest of de la Mancha. In his parish he devoted himself to catechesis and care for the poor, widows and orphans. According to the testimony of his parishioners, they always had in him a father and a friend, near and dear to all. On July 20th 1936 Don Prudencio was arbitrarily detained by militiamen of the Frente Popular without trial or justification whatsoever, except that of being a priest. He shared the prison with other detainees, in good spirits and humor, comforting them until the last minute. On August 17 he was taken from the prison along with eleven other priests to be shot in the La Matilla in Los Yébenes. In that place there where a hundred people, among them priests, religious and laity. D. Prudencio asked his executioners to be the last to be shot to give absolution to the others. He died blessing and forgiving his murderers.

Ursinio Pérez Chozas: Born on September 27th 1897, ordained a priest on March 20th 1920. When the war broke out he was parish priest in La Romeral. The mayor of that city asked him to leave because there were rumors about priests being shot and there was nothing anyone could do about it. Don Ursinio went to Tembleque to stay with his parents and siblings. The militia found him and for the first months ordered him to do field work. On December 4th militiamen knocked at the door and in front of the whole family arrested "the priest" and led him away to the cemetery at La Guardia. There he was shot with another priest and a teacher.

Vidal Díaz-Cordovés Sánchet-Perdido: Born on April 28th 1872, ordained a priest on September 21st 1895, he was the last of the cathedral canons who were slaughtered by the republicans. When the civil war broke out he was in his hometown, Consuegra. He was arrested on August 11th 1936 and released again. He locked himself away in his home, praying while constantly receiving shocking news about the murders of priests. On November 14th he was arrested again and shot the same night.

Augustín Sánchez Mansilla: Born May 5th 1872, ordained a priest December 20th 1902, dragged from his rectory in La Estrella and shot in the road on July 25th 1936

Balbino Moraleda Martín-Palomino: Born on October 17th 1898, ordained a priest on June 10th 1922. Already before the outbreak of the civil War, Don Balbino had to leave his parish in Rielves because of serious death threats. He moved to Toledo and then to Consuegra. Arrested on August 11th 1936, released days later, arrested again and massacred with other priests and laypersons who were imprisoned in Consuegra.

Emiliano Encinas y López-Ortiz: Born on September 15th 1903, ordained a priest on July 11th 1927, arrested on August 13th 1936, locked away, beaten and insulted for ten days, shot on August 23rd. His body was burned.

Ignacio García-Cabañas Mohino: Born on February 15th 1902, ordained a priest on June 14th 1924. Pastor of Our Lady of the Assumption of Quismondo. On July 1936 he was kicked out of town by the militia. He tried to make his waay to the town of Noves, but was picked up by other militiamen who forced him to go back to Quismodo. On the way there he was beaten, then robbed of his possessions and finally shot.

Depending on how good your Spanish is and on how much you can stomach, there is a good site dedicated to the martyrs of the religious persecution in Spain.